This presentation endeavored to establish guidelines for a new era of architecture in China, setting forth principles on improved policy implementation to promote the development of forward-thinking design practices throughout the region. By analyzing Chinese architectural design to present day, the presentation dissected existing problems of contemporary domestic architecture, with an emphasis on tall buildings, and clarified thoughts and key points for future development.
This presentation proposed an alternative to the continuing implementation of unsustainable 20th century urban planning models. By using WOHA’s mini-city projects and proposals as prototypes – energy-efficient vertical landscapes with sky villages and sky parks – the presentation offered a compelling manifesto for densely settled, yet comprehensively green, and ultimately self-sufficient, cities of the future. The speaker responded to the alarming urban crisis that now threatens all large cities around the globe, and urged the universal reinstatement of a mutually beneficial coexistence between human beings and the natural environment. WOHA’s projects prioritize the re-creation of ecosystems, and have also reintegrated public space and civic culture within the increasingly unpleasant urban fabric of our overcrowded cities. WOHA’s scalable prototypes offer a radical model for megacity planning: not just for the newly massive cities of Asia, but for other such cities around the world.
This research focused on quantitatively investigating and comparing the environmental and social sustainability of people’s lifestyles in terms of embodied energy, operational energy use, and overall satisfaction with their quality of life in both downtown high-rise and suburban low-rise living using Chicago, IL and a surrounding suburban area of Oak Park, IL as a case study. Specifically, in both cases, the study evaluated factors such as the embodied energy of the materials that comprise buildings in each location; the predicted and actual monthly energy consumption of the homes; travel via all modes of transport including automobile, public transport, walking, and biking; and the embodied and operational energy of the infrastructure to support each mode of transportation. In addition, this research also engaged with the individual building occupants, including single individuals, couples, and families, in a large subset of downtown and suburban Chicago households to directly evaluate perceptions of their life satisfaction and sense of community, which offered a unique direct comparison between dense high-rise and suburban low-rise living.
A Cultural Brand’s Journey Toward Building A Better New World
Associate Project Director – Design New World Development Company Limited, Hong Kong
New World Development Company Limited (NWD) has been a listed property developer in Hong Kong for nearly half a century. With businesses encompassing property development, retail, hotels and serviced apartments, infrastructure, and services, spanning Hong Kong, Mainland China and Macau, NWD is committed to upgrading the environment of cities to meet the desire of quality of community in pursuit of excellence. At NWD, colleagues are devoted to expanding their imagination, persistence in delivering bespoke craftsmanship, manifested by design originality and respecting of heritage and contemporary culture. This unique personality is powered by “The Artisanal Movement.” Art, People and Nature are the three essential elements of our first museum retail in the world – K11. NWD has a strong commitment to sustainable development. Its daily business operations strive to preserve the environment and increase community space. This presentation illustrated how NWD would accomplish its missions through skyscraper projects in Greater China.
The rise of the megacity presents unprecedented opportunities to understand the human urbanization project, and to observe the effects of multi-core, polycentric cities growing together to effectively become one. This presentation established the criteria for defining megacities, discussed their characteristics and locations, and assessed the impact they are having and will have on tall buildings, urban development, transportation, infrastructure and quality of life.
We are at the cusp of a building revolution which, for the first time, won’t be led by a developer, builder, architect, engineer, or urban planner. Technological innovation operating at unprecedented scale and speed is reshaping how buildings and cities are designed, constructed, and operated. Robotic construction, computer enhanced design, and augmented environments are a few examples that are disrupting traditional processes. This presentation introduces the initial results of Vertical Futures, a research project initiated by CTBUH and funded by the Henry C. Tuner Prize awarded to CTBUH in 2015. Following on CTBUH’s 2014 “Roadmap on the Future Needs of Tall Buildings,” the Future Technology Index aims to identify, audit, and classify the leading-edge technologies CTBUH members believe will transform tall buildings and future cities.
With 66% of the world’s population forecasted to be living in urban areas by 2050 the pressure is on to deliver housing and infrastructure. High-rise development is a solution, but the rush to deliver new urban environments has resulted in a trend towards caution and sameness in designs. Many new cities look like clones of each other and do not capitalize on the unique identifiers of the location or culture.
This presentation examined the importance of character-led development and how it is at ground level that the biggest gains can be made in terms of achieving a unique place that the community will adopt. With connectivity a key element in high density planning, transport oriented development provides an opportunity to create iconic, identifiable gateways to places which meet the needs of the people who will live, work and play there.
Digitization is reshaping industries and driving the rise of new business models, with new ways of working and new entrants rewriting the rules in the media, leisure, and transportation industries. At the same time, urbanization is continuing at a remarkable pace, leading to more densely developed cities with taller buildings. Digitization makes these buildings smarter. Smooth people flow in buildings relies on numerous factors, systems, functions, and circumstances, all of which must meet the needs of end users. This complex challenge cannot be solved by a single operator using closed, proprietary systems. It requires a more open approach where solutions from various vendors work together efficiently and seamlessly. This presentation described how the ecosystem-driven business model will drive new innovation and value creation. It examined how modern operating models based on an API (application programming interface) Economy can be applied in smarter buildings to improve both convenience and building appeal.
Director, New Business Concepts KONE
Shifting Urban Gravity, from “Central to Core” Business Districts
General Manager, Development & Valuations Swire Properties, Hong Kong
In the age of the multi-million inhabitant city, the concept of a single, concentrated Central Business District is increasingly becoming unsustainable. As we are seeing in megacities as dispersed as Shanghai, New York and London, the concept of multiple urban centers – drawing on their own unique flavors and infrastructure – has become de facto urban planning policy. Who would argue that centers such as downtown and midtown Manhattan, Canary Wharf and the City of London, or Liujiazhui and the Bund, are not equivalent to cities in their own right? And added to this mix will soon be new iconic centers such as Hudson Yards, Barangaroo and Brickell. The three conference cities of Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Hong Kong exemplify this urban trend perfectly. The historical urban centers of these cities have now dispersed to numerous nodes simultaneously as the conventional concept of the Central Business District has gradually evolved from a single, concentrated business district to multiple “Core Business Districts.” And as cities stand to increase their populations into the tens of millions, this seems inherently sensible.
With the world’s urban population expected to increase by roughly 2.5 billion people by 2050, developing an understanding of megalopolises is critical to understanding and shaping this trend. The Pearl River Delta, with over 55 million people, is one of the most populous urbanized areas in the world. This presentation explored its growth, the resulting social and environmental effects, as well as strategies for the region’s future. It presented historic and current urbanization facts of the Pearl River Delta, comparing it to other urbanized regions of the world. Questions of scale, growth, social and economic benefits and drawbacks, and the future viability of megalopolises have global applicability, and the presenter summarized key issues and future strategies for the Pearl River Delta.
This presentation discussed client requirements on both functional and aesthetic aspects for four mega-scale gates on the Ping An Financial Centre (PAFC) north tower. The PAFC north tower is a 600-meter-tall super high-rise building located in the Futian District CBD in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, PRC. In order to carry out maintenance on the 97th-plus-story of the tower, there is one building maintenance unit (BMU) seating on BMU floor at +567.65m. This BMU is 12 meters (long) by four meters (wide) by five meters (high), with a total extension to 32.5 meters and an extra extension of 20.5 meters. Proving way out for the BMU, four intelligent mega-scale doors with a size of nine meters (wide) by 8.15 meters (high) weighted 30T each mounted underneath the “diamond crown” of PAFC north tower. These four intelligent mega-scale doors are designed with special functions, including special operation requirements, adverse weather proofing, and good appearance.
Wai Ming (Thomas) Tsang,
CEO Ping An Financial Centre
Humanizing the Giants
Senior Lecturer National University of Singapore, Singapore
The rise in sustainable skyscrapers and large-scale mixed-use buildings has seen the proliferation of atria and sky-courts worldwide due to their ability to simultaneously contribute to aesthetic, socio-cultural, economic and environmental functions. This presentation examined the various dimensions of atria and sky-courts with a view to understanding how such spaces can become the "breathing lungs" of rapidly urbanizing cities that are experiencing loss of civic and green spaces; and how they could contribute to low energy buildings in urban settings. Furthermore, the presentation explored the mediating role of these spaces in creating vital bridges, most notably between the masses and the voids of a city, the public and the private spaces of a city, the inside and the outside, the built and the un-built, the soaring vertical and the horizontal, the old and the new, and the buildings and their infrastructure.
Senior Lecturer National University of Singapore
Improving the Value of Buildings through a Smart Lobby Approach
Head of Business Development, Modernization KONE, Espoo
Office lobby environments provide the first impression of a building and reflect the values associated with tenants’ brands. The need to maximize space efficiency, facilitate collaborative working, and counter competition from newer facilities is increasing the pressure to modernize existing office lobby environments. Optimizing people flow and user experience in offices requires a holistic assessment of overall building use – how people move horizontally and vertically, how the building functions, and how people use the available space. This assessment data can then be analyzed to develop solutions that significantly improve the building’s operational performance. This presentation introduced a smart lobby approach that aims to create a seamless, enjoyable, and fluent experience for end users by combining expert knowledge of the individual complex and operational aspects of a building.
Head of Business Development, Modernization KONE
Do We Need 700 Meter High-Rise Buildings?
Design Director Shum Yip Land Company Limited, Shenzhen
Through analysis of dense urban high-rise building complexes as well as research on the relationship of those structures to a city's social organization, this presentation put forward a thesis that the source and vibrancy of high-density cities arises from the opportunity for social proximity to build positive relationships among residents. Based on the principle of sustainable development, this presentation discussed how to deal with space and development models, and proposed to build a high-density vertical city that raises the standards of livability.
The Greater Pearl River Delta region emerged as a result of China's 1979 reform policies. Within the last 20 years, the GPRD has grown from a population of less than 10 million people on 4500 sq km of land to over 42 million people on 7000 sq km of land; in the process becoming the world's largest urbanized region on the planet.
For designers of vertical tall buildings, how do we create instant urbanized cities from what was recently meadows or reclaimed land? What are the considerations for creating vibrant, healthy, sustainable environments which have historically developed over decades and complete them within a decade? How do these newly formed urban centers then connect regionally with other newly formed urban centers into a modern mega-region? This presentation used case studies from the GPRD region to understand planning methodologies and considerations used in turning rural farmland into dense urban centers.
The trend of growing cities with permanently increasing populations will require new and visionary solutions for mobility in urban areas. Moving people as we are used to do today – either by individual cars, buses, taxis, etc., will lead to chaotic traffic conditions, high environmental impacts and a poor quality of life. This presentation offered new approaches in technology that improve connections and network links to and between public transportation systems like metros, etc. Increasing the height of buildings demands an increasing number of vertical transportation equipment, requiring more elevators with more vertical hoistway with more demands on space in the building's footprint. New innovations in technology, like thyssenkrupp’s MULTI® as a the first rope less elevator system and TWIN®, would allow for better transportation and building efficiency by means of multiple car systems in reduced hoistway space. Different possibilities of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings were explored. In the end, the right combination of elevator systems will prove key for an efficient solution.
How does the 21st Century youth culture of social media integrate and merge with an ever increasing tech savvy senior population? As our cities and urban environments become increasingly dense and tall, the challenges and opportunities for vertical communities become integral to sound urban design. This fusion of dense, tall and intergenerational living is an emerging typology in London, with long standing exemplars and progressive new thinking in Hong Kong. The definition of intergenerational is something where multiple generations of people intermingle or come together. Both London and Hong Kong offer examples of how we are shaping a dense vertical urbanism. Many urbanists and architects in the 1920s predicted that suburban migrations would give way to sprawl, other urban “futurists” believed that people would be living and thriving in high-density vertical cities. In 1928, architect Harvey Corbett proposed that everything from homes to green spaces would be stacked in the ultimate megacity; as we now find in HK and London. Our primary objective was to explore dense, vertical environments and urban case studies in HK and London; that weave together disparate age groups and changing lifestyles, into a vibrant urban fabric.
A series of integrated smart design tools has been developed to satisfy different design requirements and to achieve an optimal balance between economics and safety. The series of tools combines the functions of parametric modelling, optimization modules, and visualization tools based on the same platform. Through parametric design, the design process as a whole, which includes geometric studies, structural analyses, drawing production, and BIM modelling, are automated. Embedded within the workflow, the structural optimization module enables engineers to efficiently find the optimal distribution of structural elements. Then, a web-based visualization tool and an augmented reality (AR) visualization tool are used so that post-design data can be shown through diagrams to facilitate further design and coordination. These integrated smart design tools have already been successfully applied to several supertall building projects, with heights ranging from 200 meters to 500 meters and beyond. This presentation described the application of the tools in different high-rise buildings and values added to all the participants.
Advances in technology and engineering have made it feasible to build truly awe-inspiring structures. But as the push to densify increases the pressure to build ever taller, it is important not to lose sight of the impact that tall buildings have on our world and our collective psyche. Are three 33-story buildings better than a single tower at 100 stories? Does a narrow, more efficient footprint warrant the development costs of building high into the sky? At what point does the race to build ever higher neglect the human scale and become unsustainable – or does it? This often polarizing argument, centered on the relationship between height and density, has huge implications for the cities of the future.
Using CallisonRTKL’s Performance-Driven DesignSM strategy as context, this presentation provided an in-depth analysis of the social, environmental and economic impact of vertical development and a discussion of potential design alternatives influenced by recent trends in urban planning and design. The goal was to identify responsive and responsible strategies for achieving density, economic viability, and a sustainable quality of life.
As urban areas become developed in regions prone to severe weather, the risk of financial and human loss increases. Severe weather such as hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons have caused billions of dollars of damage and thousands of deaths globally. Traditional glazing structures used in buildings are particularly vulnerable to damage by windborne debris. Once the glazing system fails, the building envelope becomes open to water and wind, causing further damage. If the glazing system is designed properly, the damage and potential economic losses are reduced. When Hurricane Andrew hit south Florida in 1992, causing $28 billion in damage, the need for building code revisions became apparent. As a result, building codes were established for glazing systems to withstand the force of a strong hurricane. The building codes in Florida have proven to be very successful in preventing damage from storms and serve as a basis for global codes.
A striking new high-rise is emerging on the skyline of Shenzhen: Tencent’s global headquarters. When completed in 2017, the skyscraper will not just provide a state-of-the-art workplace for up to 10,000 of the company’s employees. It will also represent a first of its kind high-rise, mixing the connectivity associated with suburban campuses, with the recruitment and lifestyle benefits only an office in the city can provide. Attendees joined Jonathan Ward, the project’s head designer from architecture firm NBBJ, to learn how the design of Tencent’s future home came to be, the unique aspects of the building that link employees together, and the lessons learned from this project that can be applied to new development in cities around the world.
General Contracting Management in High-Rise Building - Strategy of Plan Management
Planning manager, Senior Engineer, Register Level One Constructor The Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Wuhan
The presentation mainly covered the three aspects of a plan management strategy for high-rise building general contracting. This included setting up a system for plan management, including the overview of the project, organizational structure and responsibilities, as well as project types (timeline and logical relationships).
The featured work plan is divided into project planning and implementation schedule, project master plan, subcontractor plan, integrated project master plan, sub-contractor special plan, resource security plan, bottom planner system, etc. The sample work plan is derived from the Wuhan Greenland Center project.
Building a tall building in 2002 in a city that has its roots in the 11th century was a challenge. At the time this project started, the city of Malmö was in bad shape. For years, it had leaned upon it famous shipyard, heavy industries, car manufacturers, and related activities. When the shipyard closed in 1987 the deterioration began. Luckily the city had some far-sighted and visionary politicians in city hall. They realized that the city must evolve from an industrial-based city to a knowledge-based city. At the same time, HSB Malmö was expanding and looking for new land areas to explore. The city got a new university and a new industry developing smart phones and computer games. This new platform, however, had to be accepted by the citizens. The Turning Torso was the answer for that – a new icon.
Technical Partner Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, San Francisco
In this presentation, three different solutions in three different regions of China illustrate best practices for the design and execution of optimized building enclosure systems. Poly International Plaza in Beijing features a dual-wall enclosure that is directly related to its superstructure; Ningbo Guohua Financial Tower’s perimeter structural diagrid engages directly with its exterior curtain wall, comprised of a combination of custom insulated glass and aluminum panels; and Agile Corporation Headquarters in Guangzhou features an array of transparent and opaque fenestration, including horizontal sun-screen fins that correspond to the solar load. Iconic tall buildings and their enclosures have become a catalyst for rapid urbanization in developing countries, particularly in China. Creating and implementing these enclosures requires balancing visual and performance aspects equally. Enclosures must be aesthetically pleasing, perform, and stand the test of time. The design of high-performance building enclosures must consider structural function, response to climate, energy efficiency, and user comfort.
A methodology that façade engineers commonly use to understand and detail a façade element is to break it down into "functional patterns" – principles that are analogically applied where certain relationships between tectonic elements are identified – thus allowing façade engineers to logically deduce solutions that are specific to the geometry and structural conditions of the façade element that is being dealt with. This presentation took the Tencent Seafront Towers as an example to study how the façade engineers creatively interpreted the tectonic relationships of different façade elements in a geometrically complex façade system, and applied functional patterns to a geometrically complex façade in order to ensure that both the performance and aesthetic requirements of the façade systems were fulfilled.
CK Dickson Wong,
Senior Facade Consultant Inhabit Group
Comprehensive MEP Construction Technology in High-Rise Building
General Manager MEP Company of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Wuhan
This presentation covered the four aspects of comprehensive MEP construction technology in high-rise buildings. These include:
(i) Intelligent system design in high-rise buildings, including the introduction of the company, the introduction of project implementation, and the characteristic analysis of MEP engineering and
(ii) Problem analysis of MEP construction in high-rise buildings;
(iii) Typical workmanship of MEP construction in high -rise buildings, including MEP tube construction - installation in reverse order, super high-rise MEP equipment hoisting technology, VAV air conditioning system construction control technology, factory pre-processing technology, BIM-based measuring robot technology, underground integrated pipeline construction technology and refrigeration room construction technology;
(iv) Public source management in high-rise building, including making the plan of equipment and materials, a comoponent transportation and hoisting, vertical transportation management, advance planning for all equipment on transport routes, unified field level planning, uniform transport tools, unified tailored pipeline for installation platform, and a unified three-level box cover.
It’s a well-known and oft-quoted statistic: by the year 2050, 70 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas. What we don’t yet know is what portion of that 70 percent will live – or work, or play – in skyscrapers; however, we can make some educated guesses about what the tall tower will look like and how it will best accommodate this rapidly rising number of urban dwellers. Using the latest trends and advancements in tall building design concepts as a starting point, this presentation explored the "Tower of the Future," including its technology, potential uses, and the value it brings to the end user and the community it serves. What will the term "high-performance” come to mean as our designs adapt to the needs of a changing world, and what role will tall towers play in future master plans? Which of today’s challenges will be seen as tomorrow’s biggest opportunities?
Dense urban city environments consist of an agglomeration of tall buildings. The resilience of cities as a whole depends, among other components, on the resilience of each single element: the tall buildings which together make a city a functional place. City resilience has a range of challenges, ranging from protecting the property against aggression and vandalism to the influence of extreme weather conditions. If we look at single tall buildings then we find that in many places that air tightness is one of the biggest challenges. Therefore the mechanical operation of these buildings is essential to keep them operational. Catastrophes like in Fukushima, Japan – but also usual simple power failures as we find them taking place in less stable civilizations – lead to situations where the buildings cannot be kept in operation easily. Where natural ventilation options have been part of the envelope design strategy, buildings can be kept operational with greater resilience.
Director, Global Building Envelope Design Leader Arup
Tencent Seafront Tower: Practice on Binding Buildings
Director of Structure Department Shenzhen Tongji Architects, Shenzhen
This presentation compared the differences between a binding building and a link building, defining the concept of a "Binding Building." It analyzed the architectural and structural features of Tencent Seafront Tower and interprets the gigantic-frame-structure form. It also summarized cost/economic data. This presentation introduced lifting control, crack control, vibration control, node design and structural redundancy design according to the particular concept of binding structures. Finally, it issued some questions about binding buildings for future structural engineers.
Director of Structure Department Shenzhen Tongji Architects
Green Construction by BIM Technology
Executive General Manager MEP Company of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau
This presentation covered eight aspects of green construction via BIM technology:
(i) General status of BIM operation;
(ii) General operation;
(iii) Integrity of BIM technology and advanced facilities, including Total Station instruments, scanners, CNC machine tools, intersecting line cutting machines, automatic welding and other portable prefabricated pipeline equipment;
(iv) Precast technology based on BIM, including refrigeration rooms and air conditioning rooms;
(v) Fully precast technology based on BIM for high-rise buildings;
(vi) BIM-based top-down construction method for a machinery room
(vii) Simulation techniques in BIM trial test;
(viii) Operational systems based on BIM.
This presentation outlined X-Information Modeling or XIM, a method of data-driven decision-making for the design of tall buildings. Developed over its application on more than 200 projects worldwide, XIM comprises a set of digital evaluation tools that match data analysis to 3D models, enabling designers to iterate tens-of-thousands of design options against criteria tailored to the building’s urban context. Particularly, for dense urban environments, this interactive design system helps designers respond to regionally specific constraints and objectives, such as zoning, climate, and market expectations. This presentation demonstrated the application of this methodology in three use cases: the iterative design of a hypothetical skyscraper in Manhattan, a data-driven analysis of New York, London, and Shanghai, and in aiding a city planning department in a rezoning.
Chair: Zhizhe Yu,
Director Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
Vice Chief Urban Planner Shenzhen Urban Planning Bureau
Director Shenzhen Public Art Center
Associate Director Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
Managing Director, Design Department Ping An Financial Center Construction & Development
20|20 Panel Discussion
Mixed Use Tall Buildings – The Challenges and Benefits of Vertical Urbanization
Head of Super Tall Building Services, Greater China JLL, Shenzhen
China is the global epicenter of mankind’s mass urbanization and the exploding growth of global cities. China is the unrivaled leader in the development of tall buildings on an unprecedented scale in terms of their number, geographic distribution, and sheer scale. This phenomenon is rapidly and dramatically changing the scale of cities in China, and the fabric of the purpose, function, and operation of the buildings of which they are comprised. The creation of diverse vertical communities, the social, operational, and economic challenges they impose – yet with the promise of significant benefits to the health and well-being of the community and other stakeholders – is driving the adoption of new paradigms for the ownership and management of mixed use tall buildings. This presentation outlined the emergence of mixed-use tall buildings in China’s cities that support diverse uses and functions. It also explored the economic necessity to incorporate mixed uses.
Head of Super Tall Building Services, Greater China JLL
Addressing Energy Efficiency and Complexity in Tall Buildings
Group Leader United Technologies Corporation, Shanghai
The energy systems in tall buildings are characterized by their high energy consumption and complexity. By reviewing the whole building life cycle – design, control, commissioning, and operation – this presentation presentation first introduceds the challenges that we are facing in each stage of a building life cycle, and then provideds cutting-edge technical solutions. Decentralized HVAC design, Hierarchical optimal control, PID auto-tuning, intelligent auto commissioning, and air flow management are some recommendable technologies that could help make building energy systems be simpler, more efficient, and more sustainable.
The buying values of entrepreneurial end-user clients in China and the Pearl River Delta focus on internal environments that will attract the knowledge workers that their businesses require. In 35 years China has evolved from a cheap labor source to a knowledge economy. Businesses now must compete to attract and retain knowledge workers. Thus, the workplace has become a crucial buying value: its light, air, temperature, and environment must enhance the worker’s well-being, while IT and communications support their productivity. Buildings and campuses within the megacity must also be sustainably designed and provide the amenities expected in a thriving neighborhood. China’s entrepreneurial clients often grow so rapidly that what they initially think they will need as part of a building quickly grows to occupying the whole structure, making internal flexibility within the initial building design critical.
Our lives are adapting to a convenient, vibrant, and connected live-work dynamic, and our cities must change and respond to those new requirements. Much of the urban population prefers to live in smaller apartments in high-density inner urban areas, due to their convenience and social contacts. With fewer and shorter journeys to work, this urban migration has the potential to reduce land requirements for suburban residential districts as well as demands upon infrastructure. This presentation suggested that China will lead the world in building ultra high-density, connected, and vibrant hubs within its cities, accommodating our new needs by providing public spaces at many levels and fusing the outdated concepts of high-rise towns into new vertical cities. It also explained how existing and future infrastructure nodes will provide the seeds for these hubs, and how it is possible to predicatively plan for the future densification and growth of our cities. The presentation concluded that our inner urban building typologies will continue to evolve into more flexible and pedestrian-friendly structures, whereby the lower levels of the buildings will become a series of porous and interconnected public decks and parks, spanning across roadways and creating a seamless pedestrianized and sustainable high-density environment.
A Perspective on TAIPEI 101’s Decision to Upgrade Recertification to LEED O+M v4
Joseph ChouCTBUH Leader
Chairman Taipei Financial Center Corporation, Taipei
The sheer size and complexity of a building like TAIPEI 101, along with the international nature of the project and newness of LEED v4, can present particular challenges to project teams. Notwithstanding this, TAIPEI 101 is in many ways representative of all multi-tenant office buildings, as are the plurality of LEED O+M projects, and therefore the success of this particular building offers a relevant case study for buildings of this type. This presentation illustrated key issues for the project team relating to the increased stringency of the new system. The audience benefited from the perspective of the project owner to understand the impact and change in management brought about by the practical differences between LEED v2009 O+M and v4. Aside from the technical aspects of LEED v4 O+M in detail, this presentation analyzed the business benefits to TAIPEI 101 and the importance of tenant interaction in LEED v4 O+M certification.
Chairman Taipei Financial Center Corporation
“Informative Design” – Personalized Elevators in the Information Age
Vice President, Sales, Global Major Projects Otis Elevator Company, Farmington
Over the years, elevators have become faster, safer, more intelligent, and highly energy efficient. They are now a way of life, and their design is quite mature. We are now entering a phase of “Informative Design,” where information is the new commodity that will drive efficiency and value. Smart phones and other portable communication platforms carried by the elevator user provide a rich source of information that may be augmented with additional sensors in the elevator to deliver a customized experience. In this presentation, we described some novel ways to enhance safety, convenience, personalization, and efficiency for the riding passenger. Benefits include seamless dispatching with minimized wait times, security and safety during transit, and a customized experience. We also described the use of remotely accessible sensors on the elevator to improve the reliability of the elevator and enhance the experience of the building manager.
Digital technologies have a constantly increasing influence on our daily lives, not only through different user interfaces and mobile tools, but also through digitally augmented surroundings.
By stimulating the human senses in sophisticated ways, technology can make experiences personal and emotionally powerful. This philosophy can also apply to buildings and the flow of people within them.
Multi-sensorial experiences can be used in the design of a more enjoyable and personalized journey throughout a building, but it can also have an influence our behavior and wellbeing.
Combining technology with emotional design means that people flow in the building can be supported with multisensory experiences. By utilizing digital technologies, these experiences can be modified very easily throughout building lifecycle to meet the changing needs of the tenants.
Managing Director - Asia & Middle East Arquitectonica, Hong Kong
This presentation investigated the integration of tall tower, mixed-use developments and how they connect with the city and the public when they meet the ground. Critical challenges have to be overcome in resolving the lower horizontal components of these projects – at street level, above, and below street level. In the same way that trees cannot thrive without roots, it is the accessibility of towers to transport, infrastructure, amenities, commerce, landscape and the public domain which in large part determines whether they are both profitable and sustainable. Examples were drawn from the company's international practice comparing similar projects and their solutions in diverse locations. Cultural integration, urban renewal and the strategic use of retail centers as first-phase drivers for future high-rise master plans were explored. In each example, the relationship of high- to low-rise components will be reflected to see how careful planning and design can maximize their mutual benefits.
Five years ago, CCDI put forward the concept of outdoor green work space in the high-rise building. These buildings vertically grew and interconnected with structural refuge floors as nodes. This concept was subsequently implemented in the Baidu building. As a technological innovation oriented Internet giant, Baidu has new requirements for the openness and publicity of work space. The design of CCDI expressed such an expectation of future work space, and has been recognized and supported by the city public.
This presentation analyzed the regional restructuring of the mega-urban regions created through HSR connections between new intensive specialized urban centers. This was a comparison of research into polycentric models for megacities and the developmental impacts of high-speed rail. The research concluded that China's new megacity is actually a network of smaller cities, creating a connected, concentrated, and collaborative whole. As this next phase of urbanization is driven by a transition to the new service-based knowledge economy, this presentation further examined a new emerging high-density typology of innovation in these cities, as well as the structural similarities between the precinct-scale and mega-urban-region.
Density via high-rise structures remains a primary agenda in our era of urban concentration. It is crucial to understand the societal forces that drive concentration: the communication requirements of Post-Fordist Network Society. In contrast to prior Fordism/Modernism, urban intensification is now a matter of communicative intensification rather than dense packing. Current agglomeration economies are economies of scope rather than scale. This has consequences for the high-rise typology. The standard typology belongs to the bygone Fordist paradigm of segregation and repetition, resisting complexity. The volume is generated by extrusion: the multiplication of identical floor-plates, surrounding a core that blocks communication across the individual floor-plate and between floor plates. As space programs differentiate with soaring internal and external communication needs, the solid central core becomes more and more an obstacle to navigation and communication. This core needs to be exploded and replaced by navigation voids that turn towers from shelves into vertical streets.
Chair: Robert Whitlock,
Principal Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
Chairman HSB Malmö
Head of Transit Management Schindler
Senior Lecturer National University of Singapore
Toward the Future City: An Ethical Design Philosophy for Urban Habitats
Director of Communications COOKFOX Architects, New York City
Ever taller skyscrapers, increased density, and global interconnectivity are creating new pressures and complexities in both the urban environment and the public space. Contemporary attitudes toward shared environmental and social resources are shifting in response to the challenges of rising inequality, technological connectivity, and global security. Architects are beginning to respond with a heightened sense of ethical obligation to challenge these pressures in pursuit of a design that contributes to the health and well-being of the city, its inhabitants, and its ecology. This presentation discussed global trends in design and planning through the lens of building and project case studies – historic, contemporary, and future – and proposed solutions for how the living spaces, work places, and shared urban habitats of the future may be designed more ethically by restoring both the foundational ecological systems upon which cities are built and urban connections to nature, creating designs that foster social connectivity and equality.
Director of Communications COOKFOX Architects
Building Performance – Installing and Validating Building Envelope
Codes and Advisory Services Manager Underwriters Laboratories, Northbrook
Curtain walls are an essential component of the building envelope system that protect the building structure, occupants and contents from the adverse effects of weather and the outdoor environment. As architects create new and aesthetically pleasing curtain wall designs that incorporate unique windows and different types of building materials, testing becomes critical to ensure these new designs will provide adequate protection from water and air leakage.
Codes and Advisory Services Manager Underwriters Laboratories
Merging Skylines and Social Media: Tencent Seafront
Head of Top Range Division South Region Schindler, Shenzhen
This presentation looked to overview the unique structure of Tencent seafront, and its innovative vertical transportation solution requirements. From concept to construction, the integration of a connected building wide transportation was a must for a leader in the world technology stage. In addition, providing an easy to use technology to match the company’s product ethos, Schindler’s PORT destination control solution was a clear choice to match these high traffic and aesthetic ambitions. The unique architectural construct which embodies the structure, specifically with the skybridges, allow for a smooth inter building traffic, and prepare elevator availability for passengers in both buildings, makes this a unique high rise structure globally.
Head of Top Range Division South Region Schindler
Luffing Crane Technology in High-Rise Buildings
Executive General Manager Equipment Company of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Wuhan
This presentation covered the five aspects of luffing crane technology in high-rise buildings:
(i)Projects list for luffing crane usage;
(ii) Layout and type selection;
(iii) Installation technology, including installation forms, lifting equipment and process flows;
(iv) Uplift technology, including climbing setup, climbing system and climbing process;
(v) Dismantling technology, including equipment selection and workflow.
Executive General Manager Equipment Company of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau
1 Undershaft – The City of London's New Skyscraper Where the Public Comes First
Founder and Principal Eric Parry Architects, London
The presentation described the aims underpinning the proposed development at 1 Undershaft in the City of London. The project will be exemplary in putting the public first, featuring a new square at the tower base and offering the capital’s highest free viewing gallery at the crown. Additionally, 1 Undershaft will be one of the tallest buildings in the City of London, establishing a new benchmark for high rise development in London for the next decade by providing flexible, high-quality, open-planned office accommodations within an elegant tapered form expressed through its unique external structural corten mega-frame. At ground level, the building is elevated to open up the public space, creating an animated public realm with a lowered landscaped court and retail gallery. Transfer zones within the building sky lobbies continue the public activity of the building.
Founder and Principal Eric Parry Architects
Sustainable Integration of Tall Buildings and the Urban Habitat for the Megacities of the Future
Anil HiraCTBUH Leader
Regional Director, India Buro Happold, Mumbai
Tall buildings increasingly dominate our skylines as an almost inevitable response to urbanisation. They often do not integrate well with the urban habitat in which they are located however, a must for long-term social, environmental and commercial sustainability, marching towards the age of the megacity. Instead, their dominance of the skyline separates them almost physically from the urban fabric around them, taking away from their environment instead of breathing life into it. This presentation examined what it takes to successfully integrate a tall building into the urban fabric, outlining the symbiotic benefit such integration generates for the urban habitat, the tower itself, and the city, and looking at the current drivers for integration from the perspective of different building typologies. Through examples, the presentation looked at the keys to successful integrated design, including people-centric design, and considered a framework for success for social, commercial and economic sustainability.
This presentation introduced a façade system integrated with the vertical transportation of building materials and climbing weather protection for the faster and safer construction of high-rise buildings. In the presented case study, the general contractor estimates building a high-rise in half the originally planned construction time with the use of these innovations. The system is designed with a focus on reducing time for projects and, instead promoting flow on construction sites according to lean principles, recognizing the problems in traditional installation systems, such as the chain reactions of delay and high-rise logistical bottlenecks. This weather-independent system is to be installed and run from the building exterior and requires only minimal on-floor work. This innovative, climbing weather protection system acclimates the working area, providing a controlled environment for welding and concrete work. The system, including patented technologies, has successful onsite trials and is ready for full commercialization.
Technical Director Jangho Curtain Wall Americas
Comprehensive Construction Technology in High-Rise Buildings: Wuhan Greenland Center
Technical Director Wuhan Green Center Project of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Wuhan
This presentation covered the four aspects of comprehensive construction technology in high-rise buildings:
(i) General project overview and progress;
(ii) General contracting of high-rise buildings, including challenges and evaluation of high-rise construction organization, general layout management and vertical operation surface management;
(iii) Construction deployment of high-rise buildings, including vertical construction flow and super high-rise vertical lifelines;
(iv) Construction difficulties and solutions, including core structure, steel structure construction and curtain wall construction.
Technical Director Wuhan Green Center Project of the Second Construction Co., Ltd of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau
The Continuous City
Partner Robert A.M. Stern Architects, New York City
A high-density urban habitat must engage the public in a walkable setting that unfolds as a coherent but multifaceted experience. In our work at a variety of scales we look to the most admired places in the best cities worldwide and combine their most successful features with local and regional traditions. This presentation outlined strategies we have developed to create compelling navigable social environments. An urban community is not just about sweeping planning gestures, but is dependent upon the fine-grain pedestrian experience, creating lively streets to encourage walking and human interaction. For inspiration we looked to New York City as a case study, where high-rises define broad avenues, smaller-scale buildings line side streets, and a mix of uses are tied together by related architectural vocabularies at a variety of scales. We applied these learned principles to high-density neighborhoods with a high proportion of tall buildings, which we believe represent the future of urbanism worldwide.
Senior Vice President CallisonRTKL, Shanghai
Dwindling land reserves, water and food shortages, climate change, diminishing air quality, environmental degradation – these are all among the intractable challenges we face in cities the world over. Transit, engineering and architectural planning must evolve to address these issues in a holistic, sustainable manner. Meanwhile, population increases are projected to reach unprecedented levels and designers and architects are being asked to build cities on a scale unheard of a decade ago. How do we accommodate such rapid growth while maintaining quality of life? How do we design harmonious, sustainable developments that render our urban areas competitive forces in the global market?
As the future of our cities is dependent on high-density, mixed-use development, this presentation explored the role of the tall building as the center of a polycentric planning model. The ways in which tall buildings act as a reference point for all other development and strategies for finding the right mix of uses and mobility options were also discussed. The presentation utilized case studies and highlighted key cities – including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou – that will serve as vital laboratories for testing new ideas and methods in the years to come.
There is a recent trend in the construction industry to implement "lean concepts," a management strategy based upon the Toyota Production System philosophy. While the construction industry mainly focus on lean strategy for production in both the shop and field environments, there are also opportunities to apply the concept during the production of designs, such as façade design and production processes, where the façade design and consultant team convey their methodology of quality assurance and quality control (QAQC) into the process. However, to overcome new challenges posed from overseas projects, foreign design teams need to evolve their conventional QAQC systems and procedures in order to enhance the architectural product quality through long distance operation and oversight. This evolution of traditional standards and workflows resembles the lean strategy, resulting in a win-win condition for both the foreign design team and the local façade subcontractor, thus delivering a more successful project.
Director, Mixed Reality Program Trimble Solutions Corporation, Brookline
This presentation investigated the use of mixed reality for AECO. The far-reaching impact of construction projects on the urban fabric and the economic impact of such projects require efficient design review and analysis tools. Moreover, the global nature of such projects and the involvement of public and government organizations imply the need for effective communication and collaboration solutions. The last few years’ transition from 2-D to 3-D models and the implementation of BIM have improved communication, but still, interacting with volumetric data behind a 2-D screen is extremely limited. Mixed reality brings the content out of the screen and provides users the ability to interact with design data more intuitively. Unleashing the 3-D models democratizes the data by offering a natural way for everyone to experience the design and associated information overlaid onto the world. This rich, hyper-reality environment supports design decisions, enables efficient collaboration, and introduces new design opportunities.
If the city is seen as a giant business, what is driving its market value? The height of the building is clearly one of the factors. Shenzhen was the pioneer of reform and openness, and has since gained global recognition as a “city of design.“ In this respect, the emergence of Ping’an Center is indicative of the city's soaring value. Yet there are many lessons to be learned from such a development, not least of which is that the realization of remarkable height needs more inter-disciplinary cooperation between the fields of engineering and project management.
Chief Member of Group Research and Design Committee CAPOL
Regional Managing Principal, Asia Pacific Gensler
Vice President and Global Director of Economics AECOM
20|20 Panel Discussion
Bangkok and the MahaNakhon Tower
Managing Director - MahaNakhon PACE Development, Bangkok
When the developer and architect behind MahaNakhon Tower set out to design and build the tallest building in Bangkok, they were determined to construct a tower that would not just make its presence known on the skyline, but would also contribute positively to the city’s unique urban environment by responding directly to local needs and constraints. Through thoughtful design considerations, they successfully completed a tower that makes an architectural statement while thoroughly integrating itself with its surroundings through new transportation links, retail offerings, and inviting public space. MahaNakhon’s instantly iconic pixelated design responds to the constraints of the site and visually denotes the importance of the structure. Through its unique design, MahaNakhon dismantles the traditional formula of a seamless, inert, glossy totem, and instead actively engages in the city.
Managing Director - MahaNakhon PACE Development
Mega Size Mixed-Use Projects: Redefining Vertical Urbanism
Dennis PoonCTBUH Leader
Vice Chairman Thornton Tomasetti, New York City
As the draw to urban centers increases drastically with financial growth and global influence, emerging markets seek to develop salient markers of success and hope. This presentation explored the trend of defining an icon with a mixed-use development, and how designers cope with the scale and magnitude of these high-profile projects, especially in regions breaking ground for mega-size structures. Drawing comparison between the 300-meter development of New York's Hudson Yards, the 600-meter Ping An IFC in Shenzhen, and the 1,000-meter Jeddah Tower, a relationship was found between the desire for an icon and the practicality of such construction in nations of different cultural and economic background. What was once pushing the limits of construction technology has become achievable for new cities establishing global recognition while megacities still find stability and need for the tall, mixed-use development.
The design of tall buildings in our megacities is going through an exciting paradigm shift: globally, we are observing new trends towards greater numbers of publicly accessible towers. Tall buildings are increasingly developing features of a semi-public or super-public nature. In addition to this prospect, the elevation of the public realm is driving the creation of new links extending from and towards the city streetscape below. The following presentation examined the development of this phenomenon, categorizing the increasing amount of publicly accessible towers in an attempt to discern an overall trend. Hong Kong offers some particularly unique cases of public spaces above the ground floor; such examples can be understood as reactionary measures to the city’s extreme urban densification. Finally, two nearly complete projects by Henning Larsen Architects were used to demonstrate this premise: The King Abdullah Financial District in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the Opera Tower in Foshan, China.
As cities around the world rise higher to accommodate booming urban populations, new technologies are helping overcome the limitations on building upwards. The travel height of elevators hoisted by traditional steel ropes is restricted by the weight of the steel, which can account for up to three quarters of the energy needed to move the elevator. In very tall buildings, reaching the top floor may require several transfer floors, numerous sky lobbies that take up valuable floor space, and complex elevator groupings. With the introduction of superlight, strong, and durable carbon-fiber rope technology, the potential height of future buildings has doubled, opening up a world of possibilities in high-rise building design. Carbon-fiber rope can also be retrofitted to elevator systems in existing buildings in order to cut energy consumption and increase value over the building’s lifecycle. Innovations like this take us closer to a more eco-friendly vertical urban future.
Director, Major Projects, Asia-Pacific KONE
MahaNakhon Observatory: Developing a Tourism Destination for Thailand's Tallest Building
Managing Director - MahaNakhon PACE Development, Bangkok
As Thailand’s tallest building, MahaNakhon seeks to redefine the skyline and create a beacon of expression for Thailand with the positioning of “Bangkok Rising.” Developer PACE also wishes to maintain an intersection between the city’s most expensive residential property together with public access, community and involvement. Alongside core residential, hospitality, and retail elements, MahaNakhon Observatory – where height is sold as entertainment on a visitor-by-visitor basis – represents a new revenue stream and also a way to engage with the city itself, as well as an increased challenge in terms of design and operation of the building. Developed from the onset rather than as an addition, the observatory aims to be a major tourist attraction for Bangkok when open in early 2017.
Managing Director - MahaNakhon PACE Development
KL118 Case Study: Analysis of Different Bore Pile Testing Methods
Project Director Turner International LLC, Kuala Lumpur
In the construction of tall towers a variety of pile testing methodologies are used. Piles can be tested for many purposes including the optimization of pile design, operational verification, and quality assurance of completed piles or perhaps for design verification. The presentation provided an overview of the three types of bore pile tests conducted for the KL118 tower. Because of the various desired test results and specific site conditions, this project has used three types of bore pile testing methodologies: Statnamic, conducted on three of the 137 tower bore piles (each pile being 2.2 meters in diameter, 60 meters deep) and four of the 427 car park bore piles; Bi-directional Osterberg Cell (o-cell), conducted to verify design capacities and optimize the tower test bore piles and the car park bore piles; and Kentledge blocks, conducted once for design optimization of the car park piles.
One of the outgrowths of dense vertical urbanism is the challenge of interconnecting tall buildings at multiple levels in the sky. In order to have the super-connected urban whole, pathways between the vertical nodes must be equally advanced along with technological breakthroughs that allow towers to grow vertically. The “Conservatory” At Raffles City in Chongqing, China is a new invention of the horizontal tower. It provides a fully enclosed mixed-use program while linking vertical towers together, creating a new type of three-dimensional building matrix.
The development of high-rise residential buildings has grown significantly over the past decade in response to the global increase in population density in urban centers. Urban populations accounted for 54 percent of the global population in 2014 – up from just 34 percent in 1960 – and are predicted to approach 70 percent by 2050. In this world of increasingly dense urbanization and the drive to build ever taller, vertical transportation (VT) has become a vital component to this urban expansion; however, recent experience has highlighted an apparent gap in the expectations and perceptions between key stakeholders (including end users) as to the roles and capabilities of VT in supporting high-rise living. In this presentation, D2E explored and compared those expectations and perceptions through surveys, direct interviews, its own VT design experience, gathered industry data, and previous such studies, with the aim of defining and bridging the divisions that currently exist.
Merdeka PNB118 Case Study: Adding Value to the Growing City
Karl FenderCTBUH Leader
Director Fender Katsalidis Architects, Melbourne
Tall buildings embody objectives ranging from pure business to nation building. The KL118 Tower in particular represents these objectives and more as it successfully knits together cultural and social needs into the urban fabric to revitalize a historically significant, but sometimes forgotten neighborhood, and creates a model of urban living. The completion of this project will demonstrate the client’s and designer’s vision of creating an urban, sculptural testament to the aspirations of the Malaysian people. KL118’s dynamically intertwining geometries represent the complete weaving of culture and community. Complex community and regulatory, cultural and commercial challenges are balanced to make this project a model city within a city. Values are enriched by weaving best practices in environmental, transport, connectivity and livability within the tower. The development extends and expands on the surrounding metropolis, and enhances and demonstrates future ambitions.
Director Fender Katsalidis Architects
Structural Design Challenges of Minmetals Capital Tower, Shenzhen
SawTeen SeeCTBUH Leader
Managing Partner Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York City
Steel braced frames combined with a concrete services core are widely used in tall building design. To meet the special architectural design challenges in the Minmetals Capital South China Tower in Shenzhen, such as the large, column-free spaces at the lower levels, notches in the building elevations, building setbacks at the lower floors, and the unique sail-like building shape of the tower, steel bracing, belt trusses, and moment frames, coupled to a concrete services core were selected for the 150-meter-tall tower. Uniquely-shaped composite columns with embedded steel are used to achieve the large clear spans. Due to the tight site area, shaped like a quadrant of a circle, the tower is located close to the property line. Its columns are in line with the basement wall, which serves as both the retaining wall and the support of the tower columns. A glass-clad skybridge connects the podium (also sited on the property line) to the tower, opening up additional street-level access. The podium features a long-span skylight structure which brings natural light into the space. The skybridge allows for safe access to the podium by the office occupants in incumbent weather.
Studies over the last 60 years have consistently concluded that high-rise housing is less suitable for most people compared to low-rise, especially for children. To overcome the social objections to high-rise housing, a new typology is proposed. In this scenario, access to all of the apartments is through landscaped sky-courts, up to 6 stories high, which afford each unit a private and a public garden just outside it. Corridors are totally eliminated. The “sky neighborhood” typology is compared with seven examples from 60 years of high-rise social housing in Singapore. The floor areas of the new layout and the comparisons are broken down according to function and analyzed in terms of efficiency. This comparative study shows that eliminating mono-functional corridors and replacing them with landscaped sky-courts can be a cost-efficient solution to creating the basic neighborhood units of a dense vertical city to overcome the social defects of high-rise.
The KONE JumpLift is a self-climbing elevator that uses the building’s hoist-ways while under construction, following the formwork as the building grows higher. The solution provides higher load capacities and faster speeds than rack-and-pinion hoists and it can operate regardless of weather conditions.
The JumpLift provides faster, safer, and more reliable elevator service during construction. The efficiency gains it enables result in greater productivity, better quality, and reduced costs. JumpLift can shorten construction schedules by as much as 20%, which means a quicker return on investment.
In addition, there are other benefits not directly related to construction. These can include savings on insurance and storage costs resulting from reduced man-hours for construction and more predictable material flow. Finally, because fewer external lifts are required and construction is faster, the KONE JumpLift helps to reduce the overall impact of the project on the surrounding community.
This presentation addressed the mechanical, electrical, plumbing and drainage, and vertical transportation system (MEP/VTS) design challenges encountered during the design development of three unique, iconic megatall and near-megatall buildings in three major cities in China: Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Wuhan. It also provided insight into the innovative solutions that enable the delivery of world class buildings with high building efficiency, sustainability and reliability. The Guangzhou CTF Centre and Tianjin CTF Centre are mixed-use supertall buildings with heights of over 500 meters, comprising office, hotel, services apartment and retail podiums. A new development at Wuhan will consist of a megatall office tower, retail podium and several residential towers. All three of these buildings are owned by the Hong Kong-based New World Development Group. They are designed by different international architects and are located in different climatic zones of China.
In the pursuit of denser, more concentrated sustainable cities which reduce the loss of open space and energy-intensive transport and infrastructure networks, tall buildings have an opportunity to reinvent themselves as the typology for a sustainable urban future. As we face the challenges of the future population explosion, urban renewal and climate change, tall buildings can become focused centers of live, work, play and even transportation activities, through innovative forms, technologies and environments.
Based on the above thinking, this presentation explored the new paradigms of tall buildings, inspired by local environmental factors and cultural/vernacular traditions. It also shared and reflected upon the research achievements of the joint studios between Tongji University and CTBUH in Chicago, 2013; New York, 2014; and Miami, 2015. This presentation also introduced 9 different prototypes developed by the research studios as examples of how tall buildings can take a strong role in shaping dense vertical urbanism.
Are China’s Future Tall Buildings About to Enter a New Age?
Country Head (Hong Kong & Macau) Arcadis, Hong Kong
Greater China has experienced unprecedented economic growth, resulting in the development of some of the world’s tallest and most iconic buildings. Many view these engineering marvels as part of a local government strategy to put their cities on the map. However, the economic and political landscapes have shifted, impacting demand for space, funding and the commercial viability of many developments. Many even question if it is still politically acceptable for cities to pursue such iconic tall developments. Why build 80 stories when the cost of two 40-story buildings is known to be significantly cheaper and more efficient? Economic pressures present opportunities for the industry to innovate and adapt. Three important questions arise: 1) At what point does Chinese wage inflation and falling commodity prices push the industry to greater prefabrication? 2) How will low steel prices affect the height where steel becomes more viable than composite structures? 3) Will developers increase focus on whole-life-costs, sustainability?
Laminated glass as we know it today was originally produced with PVB, developed and patented exactly 80 years ago. It’s original application was to increase the safety of automotive windscreens by combining the properties of glass with the properties of a thermoplastic polymer, modified with a plasticizer; however, as the architectural laminated glass market was maturing, the original PVB recipe proved to have its limitations for architectural applications. This led to the modification of the PVB recipe for applications such as enhanced acoustics, and the development of other polymers such as ionomers and EVA. In this presentation, = more detail on the applications of laminated safety glass were covered.
Senior Vice President / Chief Architect SOHO China Co. Ltd
Shenzhen Shum-Yip Tower One: A Case Study - A-E Integration - A Broad New Vision
Director, Structural Engineering Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, New York City
Conventional legacy systems in the design of supertall towers employ belt trusses, outriggers, and perimeter-bracing to achieve the required tower performance at the expense of open architecture. The Ladder-Core System developed at SOM presents a novel method in the design of supertall structures, enhancing the flexibility of architecture while providing the ductility, redundancy, and uniformity of stiffness compromised in legacy systems.
The Ladder-Core System features eight mega-columns at the perimeter, which form the vertical rails of the ladder on either side of the core. Composite-coupling beams act as the ladder rungs, connecting mega-columns at the perimeter to the interior core, and thereby creating a comprehensively stiff lateral system. Using 28-meter-long beams to funnel perimeter gravity loads to the mega-columns eliminates the tension produced by overturning moments. Overall, the Ladder-Core System is defined by unobstructed occupant views, a simple floor plate, and inherent structural stability.
Director, Structural Engineering Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Next-Generation Supertall Tower Form Determinants: A Study of the Tianjin CTF Finance Centre
Design Partner Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago
This presentation put forth the elements of an integrated design approach to mixed-use supertall towers that is based on rationally creative strategies that encourage efficiency, functionality, and beauty. SOM’s Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Finance Centre embodies these strategies, and elegantly achieves design and engineering excellence within the context of a mixed-use, multi-modal neighborhood and district. With a stepped core-in-core concept, aerodynamic shaped form, curving sloped column system, and an innovative and cost-efficient envelope, the Tianjin tower is a unique landmark structure derived from a considered, economical approach to high-density, mixed-use living.
Design Partner Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Sky City – Grouped High-Rise
Managing Director, Design Principle Jiang Architects and Engineers, Shanghai
Ever since the development of Chinese urbanization, the supply of land for development in many cities has reached its limits. Apart from simply restoring old buildings, there are generally three ways to solve this issue, which could be put as: "to borrow from sky," "to borrow from underground" and to "enhance rural development." Among these three analogies, "to borrow from sky" seems obviously the most economical solution. However, the efficiency, safety and comfort of high-rise construction is restricted by modern technology. To tackle this issue, Jiang proposed the concept of the "grouped high-rise sky city," which contains two strategies: "vertical transportation and facilities constructed as municipal infrastructure" and "high-rise buildings divided into groups of multi-story buildings." The development of this concept requires the collective efforts from the government, the real estate industry, and academic researchers, the realization of which could help to bring about a more economical, efficient and green city.
Managing Director, Design Principle Jiang Architects and Engineers
New World Centre Remodeling – Sustainable Building Design and Next-Generation Mixed-Use Developments
Senior Project Director New World Development Company Limited, Hong Kong
As one of the most concentrated metropolises in the world, Hong Kong developers and architects face some unique challenges on sustainable building design. The Hong Kong Buildings Department launched the Sustainable Building Design (SBD) Guidelines in 2011 to encourage developers to take a more responsive role on issues regarding bulk, height, ventilation, greenery and energy efficiency in buildings. The remodeling of New World Centre will be the first-ever large-scale development in Hong Kong with design in strict adherence to SBD Guidelines, and it is scheduled for completion in 2017/2018. This presentation highlighted the New World Centre Remodeling Project as a case study to elaborate the effect of SBD Guidelines on the creation of mixed-use development in a crowded urban environment. With a holistic design and overall site planning, New World Development is able to overcome those challenges and set a new standard for urban sustainable development.
Nimit Langsuan Residences project, located in Bangkok, Thailand, is a 210-meter-tall high end residential with over 50,000 square meters of accommodation. The tower will be unique in the Bangkok landscape and is characterized by a three-dimensional curved glass façade. These 3D curved glass elements form a repeating grillage on the building envelope and are highlighted by a corner treatment where the structural design is integrated with the concept to provide structure free views of the city. The drama of the corner treatment is enhanced further by the transparent columns of curved glass which span from the podium level over 40 stories to the crown of the building.
This presentation explored the development of the High Performance High-Rise design philosophy and technical challenges of this ground-breaking integration between engineering and architecture. This presentation described the key techniques and strategies utilized to improve the comfort of the inhabitants and quality of the space.
Engineering Properties of Composite Mega-Columns with Separately Encased Hot Rolled Steel Profiles CTBUH Research
Vice-Chief Engineer China Academy of Building Research, Beijing
This presentation offered an experimental study on the behavior of composite mega-columns with separately encased steel profiles. Ten scaled composite columns were designed, including six 1/4-scaled test specimens and four 1/6-scaled test specimens tested under static and quasi-static loads, respectively. The controlling parameter in this research was the eccentricity ratio of the applied loads. Results indicated that within the 15 percent eccentricity ratio, (1) full composite action between concrete and the steel profiles can be realized, even though the steel profiles are not connected with one another; (2) the current AISC-LRFD, Eurocode4, and Chinese code JGJ 138 are able to predict the flexural capacity of this kind of column with sufficient accuracy and a reasonable margin of safety; and (3) the deformation capacities of the specimens meet the minimum requirement specified by the codes. Finally, a simplified design method was provided in this presentation. This research was initiated and sponsored by ArcelorMittal.
Vice-Chief Engineer China Academy of Building Research
From Icon to Community: The Repositioning of the Mega Tower in the City Context
Vice Chairman Ronald Lu & Partners, Hong Kong
Historically, mega-towers were frequently labelled “egocentric displays of power,” becoming iconic symbols of a city or an individual. In today’s age of global hyper-urbanization, supertall towers are, for the first time in history, becoming more than just iconic power symbols. These towers address a real urbanization problem: they create more building space with less land. New generation mega-towers have evolved from being independent structures into complex mini-cities with integrated underground transportation systems and pedestrian connections. Their underground and above-grade connections to infrastructure are often more challenging to design and build than the towers themselves. Given this complex and highly dynamic design environment, the existing mega-tower delivery model is no longer fit for purpose; a new, more efficient model must be explored. This presentation compared two mega-towers: Tianjin CTF Finance Centre (530m) in Tianjin, China and Wuhan CTF Finance Centre (648m) in Wuhan, China; discussing the design and build challenges involved in both.
This presentation elaborated the positive effect and unique advantages of supertall high-rise buildings along with their inherent problems throughout the urbanization of Shanghai, a megacity, against the background of a new round of urban renewal to be initiated there. It availed itself of several successful cases of high-rise building projects designed by the Institute of Shanghai Architectural Design and Research Co., Ltd., before looking into the potential functional vitality, urban space quality, cultural heritage and the dramatic efficiency improvement of urban activities that may contribute to the renewal of a megacity from the perspectives of the vertical development of supertall high-rise buildings, sustainability, composite functions and highly efficient connections. It also explored whether high density supertall high-rise buildings are the inevitable and rational solution for the development of a megacity.
Post Breakage Strength Testing for Overhead Laminated Glass
Manager, Global Technical Consultancy Trosifol, Hattersheim
The design and structural performance of laminated glass in glazing applications like canopies and skylights is very critical, as it has an impact on the safety of occupants in a building and maintenance workers. For such applications, the post breakage strength of laminated glass construction is of the utmost importance. Pre-breakage strength can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by FEM technique-based software, which allows the user to input the mechanical properties of interlayers along with glass. This helps in the interlayer-based differentiation of pre-breakage structural strength and design optimization. However, the post-breakage strength of glass is still an unknown area, as analytical models for this are inconclusive so far and thus destructive testing is the only reliable solution. Impact testing, simulating the accidental fall of a maintenance worker (prDIN 18808-6) was done to assess the “fall through” resistance of point fixed laminated glass constructions having varying interlayers at different temperature levels.
Several recent noteworthy fires in high-rise buildings have drawn international media attention and highlighted a perceived weakness in tall building design. These fires appear to have involved building façades as the principal combustible material contributing to the observed rapid fire growth and development. Because of the orientation and arrangements of building façades, once started, fires involving these assemblies can grow at a significant rate. The typical fire suppression systems in such structures are not designed to mitigate these types of fires. Building designers need to understand the importance of façade material selections and how those selections may contribute to higher risks of fires. This presentation provided information on recent building fires involving the exterior façades, the history of passive requirements outlined in the major building codes that address façade materials, the often confusing world of fire tests, and more.